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Crypto Asset Basics: Understanding the Fundamentals of Cryptocurrency

Jun 12, 2023
byNDAX Labs

Cryptocurrencies and blockchains are new technologies which have taken the world by storm, revolutionizing how we perceive and handle money and financial transactions. However, with many new terms and concepts to grasp, diving into the crypto asset landscape can be overwhelming for newcomers.

In this beginner's guide, we will break down the fundamentals of crypto assets, exploring key terms, their functions, and their underlying blockchain technology.

Demystifying Crypto Assets: To navigate the world of crypto assets, it's essential to familiarize yourself with key terminology. Let's start by exploring some of the most commonly used terms:

  • Crypto Asset: This umbrella term describes digital assets that leverage cryptography, peer-to-peer networks, and a distributed ledger system (known as ‘blockchain’) that records all transactions.
  • Cryptocurrency: The most well-known type of digital asset, cryptocurrencies are designed to function as digital currencies. They facilitate payments or trade of goods between parties without the involvement of a third party like a government, corporation or central bank.
  • Blockchain: The distributed ledger technology that powers most crypto assets. Unlike centralized systems like bank ledgers, blockchains are decentralized, and operate across a public network of computers (instead of the private servers of a commercial, retail or central bank.

Exploring Different Types of Crypto Assets: While Bitcoin remains the flagship cryptocurrency, the market is continually evolving with the emergence of new crypto assets. Here are a few unique types:

  • Digital Tokens: These tokens can be traded and are tracked on a ledger. They possess specific functionalities, permissions, and associated terms. Utility tokens, for instance, grant access to particular services (like using a gift card for purchases, or for voting on protocol changes), while NFTs (non-fungible tokens) can represent ownership in digital art or rights to a song’s royalties.
  • Stablecoins: Designed to maintain a stable value, stablecoins are used as a medium of exchange for other crypto assets or services. They aim to offer the accessibility and mobility of cryptocurrencies while minimizing price volatility.

The Keys to Crypto Assets: To transact with cryptocurrencies, it’s imperative to understand the concept of public and private keys:

  • Public Key: This key is shared to receive transactions. It serves as an identifier for your ‘account’ on the network and can be found publicly on the ledger, like an address on the blockchain.
  • Private Key: This key must be kept confidential. It is used to authorize transactions and prove ownership, like a deed—or keys—to your home. Safeguarding your private key is crucial: Losing it means losing access to a particular digital asset.

How Crypto Assets and Blockchain Work: Crypto assets exist solely on the blockchain (though they can represent real world assets) and are accessed through private keys. When you purchase crypto assets, you don't physically possess them. Instead, they are stored at a digital address on the blockchain. Wallets help manage, or store the keys associated with your assets, but those assets live ‘on chain’. Wallets can be categorized as hot (connected to the internet) or cold (offline).

Understanding Blockchain: Blockchain is the distributed ledger system that lists and manages the entire transaction history of a cryptocurrency. Distributed simply means that it exists across/on each computer of a network, ensuring its security and transparency. These transactions can be viewed publicly by anyone via various blockchain explorer services.

Associated Risks: It's crucial to be aware of the risks when dealing with digital assets. Price volatility is a significant factor, with values fluctuating rapidly throughout the day. Additionally, since they are bearer assets (like cash or gold) and transactions are often irreversible, crypto assets are susceptible to fraud, manipulation, and cyberattacks.

Key Takeaways: As a beginner exploring crypto assets, taking the time to understand the different kinds, their functions, and associated risks is vital. This way when delving into the world of crypto assets and blockchain technology, you can confidently make informed decisions and navigate this exciting landscape safely.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this blog is for educational purposes only and should not be construed as financial or investment advice. Always conduct thorough research and consult with professionals before making any investment decisions.